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    二十余年翻譯經(jīng)驗,涉外翻譯資質(zhì)齊備

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    翻譯技巧:漢譯英的“八戒”

    一、戒“從一而終” 
    漢語(yǔ)言簡(jiǎn)意賅,句子靈活,往往是一個(gè)漢語(yǔ)詞匯對應N個(gè)英語(yǔ)詞匯,具體到在本句中應該采用哪個(gè)意項,務(wù)必抓住精神實(shí)質(zhì),不可以不變應萬(wàn)變。至于怎么應變,這就是顯示譯者功力的地方了。比如:都是“問(wèn)題”,下面的翻譯各不相同。 
    共同關(guān)心的問(wèn)題questions of common interest 
    解決問(wèn)題solve a problem 
    問(wèn)題的關(guān)鍵the heart of the matter 
    關(guān)鍵問(wèn)題a key problem 
    原則問(wèn)題a question/matter of principle 
    沒(méi)有什么問(wèn)題without any mishap 
    摩托車(chē)有點(diǎn)問(wèn)題Something is wrong with the motorcycle. 
    問(wèn)題不在這里That is not the point. 
    譯者要掌握這種漢英翻譯中的“游擊戰術(shù)”,翻譯家應是不同“文化王國”邊境線(xiàn)上的“游擊戰略家”。 
    沙博里將《水滸傳》譯為:Outlaws of the Marsh(沼澤地上的亡命之徒),楊憲益譯將屈原的《國殤》譯為:For Those Fallen for Their Country,北外出版社將《儒林外史》譯為:The Scholars。這些都是譯者吃透了原文的原意而譯出的佳作。 
     
    二、戒望文生義,機械直譯 
    這多半是初學(xué)者犯的毛病,他們易于被表面現象所迷惑。 
    黃牛(yellow cow——ox前誤后正,下同) 
    黃鸝(yellow bird ——oriole) 
    黃瓜( yellow melon——cucumber) 
    紫菜(purple vegetable ——laver) 
    紅木(red wood——padauk) 
    紅豆杉(red fir——Chinese yew) 
    黑社會(huì )(black society——sinister gang) 
     
    三、戒“水土不符”,習慣搭配失當 
    這的確是難度系數較大的問(wèn)題,它要求譯者既有較高的中文修養,又要有較高的英文造詣,一知半解的人常常在此“翻車(chē)”。如: 
    寫(xiě)罷,擲筆在桌上。又歌了一回,再飲數杯酒,不覺(jué)沉醉,力不勝酒,便呼酒保計算了,取些銀子算還,多的都賞了酒保。 
    And tossed the pen on the table. He intoned the verses to himself, then downed a few more cups of wine. He was very dunk. Song-Jiang asked for the bill, paid, and told the waiter to keep the change.(沙博里譯《水滸傳·潯陽(yáng)樓宋江吟反詩(shī)》) 
    目前,《水滸傳》最好的英譯本要數沙博里先生的本子了。沙博里出生在美國,青年時(shí)來(lái)到中國,一住就是半個(gè)多世紀。為了譯好《水滸傳》,據說(shuō)他潛心研究了山東的地方志和舊時(shí)方言,可謂精誠所致,譯著(zhù)既“達”又“雅”。然而歷史告訴我們,中國古人沒(méi)有用過(guò)鋼筆,宋朝時(shí)用的還是毛筆,故the pen 應改為the writing-brush。 
    下面的譯文就較好地照顧到了西方人的思維和理解習慣: 
     
    美國把貿易和扯在一起,只會(huì )損害兩國的經(jīng)濟利益。 
    The US policy of linking trade with human rights can only bring harm to the economic interests of the two countries. 
     
    關(guān)起門(mén)來(lái)搞建設是不成的,中國的發(fā)展離不開(kāi)世界。 
    China can't develop in isolation from the rest of the world. 
     
    四、戒主語(yǔ)暗淡 
    主語(yǔ)是句子的靈魂,定住譯文的主語(yǔ)是關(guān)鍵的一步棋。主語(yǔ)定偏了,整個(gè)句子將顯得松散乏力,甚至會(huì )誤導讀者。例如: 
     
    如果這個(gè)問(wèn)題不解決,勢必影響兩國的利益。 
    Failure to settle this issue is bound to impair the relations between the two countries seriously. 
    If the problem is not solved, it is sure to affect the interests between the two countries. 
    在上面的兩種譯文中,顯然第一種譯文主語(yǔ)選得好,句子流暢。又如: 
    夏威夷的沙灘上,椰影婆娑,海風(fēng)習習,一妙齡女郎正躺在白色的塑料椅上養神。 
    On the Hawaiian sandy beach, the coconut palms are whirling, the congenial sea breeze is blowing, and a young lady is lying in the white plastic chair resting to restore energy. 
    因為是輕松讀本,又是描述性的文字,使用三個(gè)主語(yǔ)the coconut palms、the congenial sea breeze、a young lady仍是可取的。 
     
    五、戒結構單調,組合生硬“拉郎配” 
    由于漢英結構不同,表達方式迥異,硬性翻譯不僅讀起來(lái)別扭,而且會(huì )鬧出笑話(huà)。這就要求譯者在翻譯時(shí)靈活使用整合的技巧,將句子整合,凸顯漢語(yǔ)中所隱含的層次,補充所缺失的成分。有時(shí)要將簡(jiǎn)單句譯成并列句,有時(shí)將并列句譯成主從句。 
    在紀念大學(xué)畢業(yè)20周年聚會(huì )時(shí),我忽然問(wèn)起原來(lái)的班主任:“我個(gè)子又不矮,怎么把我安排在了第一排呢?” 
    At the reunion party for 20 anniversary of graduation from university, I suddenly asked my former teacher in charge of our class then:” Since I am not of short stature, how did you arrange me at the first row?” 
    一個(gè)高度近視的女博士去擦鞋店擦高統靴,禿頭老板親自蹲下來(lái)給她效勞。 
    When a woman doctor who suffers a severe myopic went to shoes-polishing shop for her buskins,the bald boss squatted down to serve her personally. 
     
    六、戒“愚忠”,不諳增減之道 
    我們耳熟能詳的東西外國人可能會(huì )感到一頭霧水,譯者需要增加必要的說(shuō)明和補充或者減譯。否則,外國人會(huì )不知所云。畢竟,漢譯英最終是給外國人看的。 
    例如:風(fēng)水 
    fengshui——the location of a house or tomb, supposed to have an influence on the fortune of a family. 
     
    七、戒語(yǔ)句重復 
    漢語(yǔ)多重復,以強化語(yǔ)氣;英語(yǔ)則要盡量避免重復。 
    王曰:“此鳥(niǎo)不飛則已,一飛沖天;不鳴則已,一鳴驚人。” 
    “The bird may not have flown yet”, replied the King, “Once it does, it will soar to the sky. I may not have cried out yet, but once it does, it will startle everyone.”(楊憲益譯《史記-滑稽列傳》) 
    中國人也好,外國人也好,死人也好,活人也好,對的就是對的,不對的就是不對的。 
    What is right is right and what is wrong is wrong, no matter what it concerns, the Chinese or foreigners, the dead or the living. 
     
    八、戒另起爐灶,走失精氣神 
    譯文要力求其“信”,盡可能契合漢語(yǔ)原來(lái)句子的氣勢、情緒和結構。 
    例如,元朝人王實(shí)甫寫(xiě)下了《西廂記》,張雪靜改編后并作了翻譯—— 
    掏出張生那封信,回頭環(huán)視見(jiàn)梳妝臺上的梳妝盒,眼睛一轉,心里說(shuō)有了,將信放了進(jìn)去,合上蓋時(shí)故意壓了一角露在外面。 
    Rose took out Zhang's letter, she thought, “It would be better to put it in her make-up case, and letter find it herself.” So she put the letter in the case, leaving a corner of it sticking out, so that it would be quickly noticed. 
    不難看出,譯文與原文相去甚遠,互不吻合,成了“兩張皮”。 
    你已經(jīng)死在過(guò)深的怨憤里了嗎? 
    死?不,不,我還活著(zhù)—— 
    請給我以火,給我以火! 
    Have you perished in this deep rancor and bitterness? 
    Death? No, no. I'm still alive. 
    Please give me a light, give me a light!

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